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太極推手之原理及應用研究

練習太極拳,先從單式循序練習入手,或稱盤架子,在掌握了整套太極拳招式之後,便持之以恆地鍛煉無間,漸漸體會太極拳慢練的道理,領悟太極拳虛實,剛柔之道,與及何謂借力打力,捨己從人,以小勝大,以弱勝強,以慢打快的道理,在此同時,更旁及推手的練習,因為要明瞭以上道理,必須透過推手的鍛煉,才能實際體會個中道理,再配合散手的訓練,才能達至強身健體,以弱勝強之目的,否則亦得一套空架子而已,沒有內容,亦不能應用,好像讀書而不求解一樣道理。
在整套太極拳練習體系中,推手是不能缺少的,拳經云:「着熟而漸悟懂勁,而階及神明」。意即指此,我們在練習招式純熟之後,便要悟懂勁之道,最後才能達到神明的境界。至於如何掌握懂勁之道,則以推手為入門功夫。
太極拳發勁的方法有八種,即「掤、履、擠、按、採、挒、肘、靠」,而在戰術應用上,有五大原則,就是「黏、連、棉、隨、不丟頂」。要靈活掌握五大原則及八勁的原理及應用,推手可說是不二法門。
推手的內容,包括有「定步單推手,定步雙推手,活步、九宮步、七星步、大履步,肘履及俯仰」……等多種。而在練習上述各種推手時,可適當地發揮太極拳之八勁。上述之內容有限,但變化可說是無窮。
透過推手的訓練,可使我們反應快捷,感覺靈敏度提高,練習之初,先從鬆入手,在與對手搭手之間,從手部接觸之點,去感覺對方之攻勢與虛實,在這訓練過程中,可分為三個階段或可說是三個境界,就是第一:「不知不覺」,這是最初的階段,因為如上文說我們透過推手去領悟感覺,亦即所謂聽勁,即從手接觸感應對方發力,而於第一時間及時作出化解,根本沒有經過大腦的思考,手上即已作出第一時間之反應,而初學者對此,可說是毫無體會,更遑論作出反應,所以初學者,大都是在對方一發勁,便毫無反應地倒下了,根本連對方在何時發出這股勁力也不知道,這可說是不知不覺。
而為較好一點的,就是「後知後覺」,在練習一段時間後,被對方發得多了,吃虧多了,於是便能從失敗中吸取經驗和教訓,從手的感覺告訴他,對方已發動攻勢了,這時雖然知道,心裏想化解或閃卸,但卻來不及,有心無力,這是技力不足與境界的問題,但可能間中偶或有一二次成功地化解,這屬於中期這後知後覺階段。
最高境界的可說是「先知先覺」了,一般來說,必須經過長期練習,不斷吃虧,及無數次失敗方能臻此境界。到此階段,在雙方一搭手之間,對方進攻與否?是虛是實,心中早已了然,甚至可從容地試探對方,控制對…
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Tai Chi Chuan (Square Form)
119. Completion Style

1. Lower the hands to the sides and straighten the legs to reassume the ready position of the first movement.

Tai Chi Chuan (Square Form)
118. Tai Chi at Rest

1. Turn the right foot out at 45° to the right by pivoting on the heel. At the same time shift the weight onto the right leg and reach out at 45° to the right with me right hand. 2. Bring the left foot across towards the right, turn the right foot in so the feet are parallel and the weight is evenly distributed, at the same time crossing the hands in front of the chest, left hand on the inside. Both knees are bent.

Tai Chi Chuan (Square Form)
117. The Single Whip

1. Keeping the right arm outstretched, bring the right hand around to the left in an arc at the end of which the hand forms a hook. At the same time the right foot turns in slightly towards the centre. 2. Take a small step to the left with the left foot. 3. Sweep the left hand across the body, palm facing inward. As it passes the body, turn the left hand and push out, sitting down in the horse-riding stance.

Tai Chi Chuan (Square Form)
116. Step Up, Grasping The Bird’s Tail

1. Move the hands around and down in an arc, clockwise through 180°, so that the left palm faces down and the right palm faces up. Then step forward with the right foot into a front stance and stretch the arms diagonally out to the front. 2. Draw the arms across to the right by twisting the hips. 3. Shift the weight back onto the left leg. 4. Bending at the waist, press down with the right palm. 5. Shift forward into a front stance, pushing out diagonally with the right hand.

Tai Chi Chuan (Square Form)
115. Step Up To Pat The Horse High

1. Step forward with the left foot, resting the heel on the ground. At the same time unclench the right fist, turning the hand anti-clockwise through 180° so that the right palm is above the left and the left fingertips touch the right wrist.

Tai Chi Chuan (Square Form)
114. Turn Body And Swing Fist

1. Draw the left foot in by pivoting on the heel 90° to the right. At the same time fold the arms by lowering the left hand in a fist until it comes under the right elbow. The right fist is also clenched. 2. Pivot 180° around to the right and step a little out to the right with the right heel. 3. Opening the left hand, shift into a front stance and swing both hands forward in an arc, moving the left hand into position above the clenched right fist.

Tai Chi Chuan (Square Form)
113. Slap The Face

1. Twisting the hips to the left, swing the left hand up and out to the left, palm up. The right hand is drawn in to protect the left armpit and the right palm faces down. 2. Shifting forward into a front stance, slaps forward and down into the opponent’s face while the right hand protects the left armpit.